Civics & Economics Notes

  • Separation of Powers and Checks & Balances (CE.6b)

    The division of government power into __three branches__: Legislative, Executive, Judicial. \n\n \n\n__The Constitution of the United States__ in Articles I, II, and III defines the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government.\n\n![546273de2a410b1306000049](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/ecfe9649-643e-471b-a78b-756c7f87bcf0.jpeg)\n\n "},{"left":"Why are the powers of the national government separated between three branches?","r


  • Fundamental Political Principles (CE.2a)

    ,"right":"What are the fundamental political principles that have shaped government in the United States?"},{"left":"Consent


  • Preamble (CE.2c)

    What are the purposes identified in the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States of America?"},{"left":"What is the Pr


  • Amendment Process (CE.2d)

    ,"right":"1. How can the Constitution of the United States be amended?\n1. How can the Constitution of Virginia be amended?"},{"left":"What is


  • First Amendment & Due Process (CE.3b)

    __U.S. Constitution__"},{"left":"What are the five freedoms guaranteed by the 1st Amendment?\n\n(RAPPS) ","r


  • Roles and Powers of the Executive Branch (CE.6d)

    The executive branch is headed by the __president of the United States__, the chief executive officer of the nation.\n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/1b73d8d6-224a-40f8-95a6-08a618be0720.gif) "},{"left":"How does the executive branch influenc


  • Citizenship (CE.3a)

    ,"right":"How does an individual become a citizen?"},{"left":"What is


  • The Judicial Branch (CE.9a)

    The role of the judicial branch is to __interpret laws__."},{"left":"What type of court system do we have here


  • Judicial Review (CE.9b)

    The power of the judicial review is an __important check on the legislative and executive branches__ of government."},{"left":"What is judicial review?","right":"The


  • Civic Duties (CE.3c)

    What are the 5 civic duties that all citizens must fulfill? (Hint: POSSE)","


  • Civic Responsibilities (CE.3d)

    A basic responsibility of citizenship is to __contribute to the common good__."},{"left":"How are civic responsibilities different from civic


  • Community Service (CE.3e)

    ,"right":"In what ways do citizens participate in\n community service?"},{"left":"A democ


  • Functions of Political Parties (CE.5a)

    ,"right":"What roles do political parties play in\n the American political process?"},{"left":"What


  • Similarities and Differences of Political Parties (CE.5b)

    A __two-party system__ characterizes the\n American political process. \n\n![555e1cf27bf8bcc577c573eb](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/0fcf915f-54a9-4a85-b3dd-f5d0474caa41.png)\n\n "},{"left":"How are political parties similar?","right":"Similarit


  • Role of the Media in Elections (CE.5c)

    Voters evaluate information presented\n in political campaigns __to make reasoned choices__ among candidates.![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/5a4acc96-41d4-43e3-9f43-3a457f9cdfe3.jpeg)"},{"l


  • Campaign Finance (CE.5d)

    Running for political office can be __very expensive__.\n\n \n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/91ff242c-7f1a-4dd7-ab75-ca365a1d93ce.jpeg) "},{"left":"How do rising campaign cost affect running fo


  • Voting & Elections (CE.5e)

    Through legislation and constitutional amendments, different American citizens have been granted the right to vote at different times.\n\n \n\nLegislation and constitutional amendments\n\n- 15th Amendment: Granted African Americans the right to vote\n- 19th Amendment: Women's Suffrage\n- 23rd Amendment: Allowed DC residents to vote in presidential elections\n- 24th amendment: Outlawed poll taxes\n- 26th Amendment: Lowered the voting age to 18\n- Voting Rights Act of 1965: Prohibits racial discrimination in voting"},{"left":"What is required before a citizen may vote?","right":"__Voter


  • Electoral College (CE.5f)

    What process is used


  • Student Participation in Elections (CE.5g)

    ,"right":"How can students under 18 participate in the democratic process?"},{"left":"How can


  • The Three Branches of the National Government (CE.6a)

    ,"right":"1. What is the structure of the national government as set out in the United States Constitution?\n1. What are the powers of the national government?"},{"left":"What d


  • The Federal Legislative Branch (CE.6a, CE.6.c)

    ,"right":"1. Which branch of the national\ngovernment has the power to pass laws?\n\n1. How does Congress make laws?\n1. How can citizens learn the importance of the individual’s participation in the policymaking process?"},{"left":"What b


  • Structure & Powers of State Government (CE.7a)

    The form of government of the\n Commonwealth of Virginia is established by the __Virginia Constitution__.\n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/e81b655e-4261-4164-9a65-837508fdaac1.jpeg) "},{"left":"How is the power of the Virginia government divided?","right":"Leg


  • Federalism (CE.7b)

    According to the Constitution, w


  • State Law Making Process (CE.7c)

    __Members of the Virginia General Assembly__ are elected to make state laws.\n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/b28716e8-00a4-450e-a4e1-9852d6a3ba8e.jpeg) "},{"left":"What are the steps in the VA lawmaking


  • State Executive Branch (CE.7d)

    The executive branch of the Virginia state government __enforces the laws__ and __plays a key role in the policymaking process__."},{"left":"Who is the head of the state executive bra


  • Structure & Powers of Local Government (CE.8a)

    The units of local governments in Virginia are created by the __General Assembly__."},{"left":"What types of powers do loca


  • Relationship Between Local and State Governments (CE.8b)

    The authority of local governments in Virginia is derived from __the state__."},{"left":"All powers of local governments are given to the


  • Local Lawmaking Process (CE.8c)

    Counties, cities, and towns __adopt and enforce ordinances to provide services for their residents__."},{"left":"Who passes ordinances for a county?","right":"An elected __


  • Role of Mass Media in Public Policy (CE.10a)

    How does the media help set the public agenda?","right":"W


  • Individuals and Interest Groups & Policy Making (CE.10b)

    __Individuals and interest groups__ influence public policy."


  • International Issues & Decision Making (CE.10c)

    __Local governments__ may be required to formulate, adopt, and implement public policies in response to international issues and events.\n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/3af8d1f9-de0d-4950-90cc-8dbd27d580f8.jpeg) "},{"left":"What type of international issues and events would require policy decisions by local governments?","right":"Internat


  • Due Process (CE.9d)

    /s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/0085e7a5-6146-46c2-b4a3-3953fbc5e6b3.jpeg)__ __"},{"lef


  • Scarcity, Choices, and Opportunity Cost (CE.11a)

    Because of __scarcity__, consumers, producers, and government decision makers are forced to make choices."},{"left":"What is scarcity?\n\n \n\nWhy does scarcity exist?","right":"Scarcity is


  • Types of Economies (CE.11b)

    What


  • Characteristics of the US Economy (CE.12a)

    The United States economy is primarily a free market economy but is characterized as a __mixed economy__. \n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/bd374055-4dcb-4568-9502-0e0351defe9d.jpeg) "},{"left":"When does the government intervene i


  • Types of Business Organizations (CE.12c)

    There are __three__ basic ways that businesses organize to earn profits.\n\n \n\nBasic types of business ownership\n\n- __Proprietorship__\n- __Partnership__\n- __Corporation__\n\n \n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/53c9d0d0-24de-46ce-853f-2bd2347ed7f1.png) "},{"left":"What is a proprietorship?","right":"Proprietorship: A form


  • Circular Flow (CE.12d)

    Resources and goods/services flow between which three grou


  • Private Financial Institutions (PFIs) (CE.12e)

    Private financial institutions help facilitate an exchange of money between __savers and borrowers__."},{"left":"PFIs include what?\n\n \n\nWhat do PFIs do?\n\n \n\nHow do


  • Global Economy (CE.12f)

    Virginia and the United States pursue international trade in order __to increase wealth__."},{"left":"What is the global economy?","right":"Global economy:


  • Competition in the Marketplace (CE.13a)

    /s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/a32cc1d7-151f-4011-a4e3-b26e3162b69a.png) "},{"left"


  • Public Goods & Services (CE.13b)

    Government provides certain goods and services that __individuals and businesses acting alone cannot provide efficiently.__\n\n![](https://s3.amazonaws.com/classmint.img/3f208451-c8d3-4029-b0f2-dfe163fab773.png)__ __"},{"left":"What are the characteristics of the goods and services pr


  • Budgets and Taxes (CE.13c)

    __Every level of government__—federal, state, and local—__requires revenue (money/income)__ to pay for goods and services\n\nprovided by the government. \n\n__ __\n\n__Taxes and fees__ levied on individuals and businesses are the major source of this revenue. "},{"left":"What are the three main taxes collected by the government?","right":"__Income tax: __Payments made by individuals and corporati


  • Federal Reserve System (CE.13d)

    What does the FED consist of?","right":"The Federal Reserve System consists of __a Board of Governors__ and __12 federal reserve banks__. "},{"left":"How is the chairperson of the FED chosen?","right":"The chairperson is __appointed by the president__ and


  • Government Regulation (CE.13e)

    The United States government __passes laws and creates agencies__ to protect consumer rights and property rights, competition in the marketplace, labor, and the environment."},{"left":"What is a property right?\n\n \n\nWho helps to define and enforce pr


  • Currency (CE.13f)

    Who issues coins and currency in the Unite


  • Personal Finance & Career Opportunities (CE.14a-f)

    Human capital refers to __the combination of a person’s education, knowledge, skill, experience, health, training, and talent__. \n\n \n\nPeople develop their human capital __through formal and informal education__. \n\n \n\n \n\nPeople who have invested in their own human capital __have the potential to produce more, earn more, and choose a career that is satisfying to them__."},{"left":"What must you be aware of when selecting a career?\n\n \n\nWhat does career planning start with?","right":"An awareness of __personal talents,


  • National Lawmaking Process (CE.6c)

    __Specifically listed__ in the Constitution of the United States\n\nImplied: __Used to carry out __expressed powers (not listed)"},{"lef


  • Supply and Demand (CE.12b)

    Both buyers and sellers respond to price changes. When prices change,__ buyers change the quantity they are willing and able to buy__ and __sellers change the quantity they are willing and able to bring to market__."},{"left":"What is price?\n\n \n\nHow is price determined?","right":"Pric


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